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What is the meaning of prefixes like QP, TX, AD etc.?

When a recipient receives a message from any provider or bank etc., a sender ID along with a prefix is displayed in the inbox. For example- VM-SBGMBS, DM-Google, BR-Amazon, and QP-SMSAPI etc.

The prefixes VM, BW etc. are displayed because SMS is sent in huge numbers via bulk SMS. SMS providers follow rules framed by Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) and according to TRAI rules,

Sender ID should be restricted to 6 characters. (Ex. QP-TxTAPI)

The prefix has a specific meaning. That is:

The first character of prefix displays the operator name-

 Operator Code
 Aircel, Dishnet Wireless  D
 Airtel  A
 BPL Mobile/Loop Telecom  L
 Idea Cellular  I
 Reliance Communications  R
 Reliance Jio Infocomm Ltd  J
 Reliance Telecom  E
 Tata Teleservices  T
 Unitech  U
 Vodafone  V
 Videocon  H, C & Q

The latter character represents the location of the operator through which the message is received:

 Operator Code
 Andhra Pradesh  A
 Assam  S
 Bihar  B
 Delhi  D
 Gujarat  G
 Haryana  H
 Himachal Pradesh  I
 Jammu & Kashmir  J
 Karnataka  X
 Kerala  L
 Kolkata  K
 Madhya Pradesh  Y
 Maharashtra  Z
 Mumbai  M
 North East  N
 Orissa  O
 Punjab  P
 Rajasthan  R
 Tamilnadu  T
 UP-East  E
 UP-West  W
 West Bengal  V

Therefore, if you get a message like QP-TxTAPI, you can interpret that you've got the message through the Videocon operator from Punjab.